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Treating co-occurring disorders can be challenging due to several factors. Patients may self-perpetuate or self-medicate without being aware of the concurrent disorders. There may be perceived shortcomings in the substance use disorder treatment system, and communication with substance use disorder treatment providers can be challenging. Dual diagnosis treatment requires specialization, and there is an increased risk of relapse or developing maladaptive behaviors. Additionally, the presence of two or more disorders can complicate diagnosis and treatment, making integrated care recommended. It is also important to guard against expecting linear change in patients with co-occurring disorders.